[list several single-sentence - Human Body
    - Health and Typical Source Domains of Conc The Target Domain is what is b

Illustration

[list several single-sentence examples of mediation dialogue, after each of which are instructions to for altering to a metaphor of another source domain]

Most Popular Source Domains:

- Human Body

- Health and illness

- Animals

- Plants

- Building and construction

- Machines and tools

- Game and sport

- Money & economic transactions

- Cooking and food

- Heat and cold

- Light and darkness

- Forces

- Movement &

direction

A Range of Possible Source Domains

Typical Source Domains of Conceptual Metaphors - A Range of Metaphoric Choices

The example given above is of a conceptual metaphor that is widely understood and not particularly artistic or novel. It comes from the source domain of the human body, particularly to do with the eyes and how we see. Because we know so much from direct experience about what is entailed in such normal functions, this is naturally a very widely used source domain. Human body metaphors will come up for most people dozens of times each day to express metaphorical understanding of a great many abstract or subjectively experienced matters (further examples: "He faced the task and pushed on," "Poke around and find out more," "Listen to them with your heart"). Other very common source domains (Kövecses, 2002) are given below with language examples and shorthand notations in parentheses:

q Health and illness ("Is he not as fit to care for the kids?" Suitability For Parenting is Health)

q Animals ("A parent needs an eagle eye and then to ferret out what’s going on," Person is Animal, Particular Person is Raptor That Seizes on Something/ is Aggressive, Burrowing, Hunting Animal)

q Plants ("He’ll let the children just vegetate," Children are Plants)

q Building and construction ("He sees what they’re doing but doesn’t put it together," Perception is Building, Perceiving Something is Building Something From Pieces)

q Machines and tools ("The evenings with him don’t run smoothly," Human Activities are Machines, Particular Activities are Smooth-Running Machines)

q Game and sport ("When they misbehave he should call them on it," Parenting is a Game, A Good Parent is a Vigilant Game Referee)

q Money and economic transactions ("She’s invested in things being done her way," Parenting is an Economic Transaction, Having a Position on Something is Staking Money on Something)

q Cooking and food ("At his house the kids are on the back burner," Parenting is Cooking, Irresponsible Parenting is Letting The Food Cook Itself)

q Heat and cold ("If he showed more warmth it would help," Interest/Affection is Temperature),

q Light and darkness ("Just a flicker of interest," Human Attention is Light/Fire)

q Forces ("Could he be induced to do more?" Persuasion is Physical Force, Particular Persuasion is Invisible Physical Force)

q Movement and direction ("Her approach gives her the upper hand," Sveltempla+ocial Advantage/Disadvantage is Up/Down; "His is heading for trouble," Action is Movement, Particular Action is Movement Towards a Particular Destination)

Here we see a dozen or so of the most popular source domains for conceptual metaphor. The examples highlight how target domains are metaphorically understood from source domains. Such metaphors transfer ideas, logic and inferences from sources that are very familiar to targets that are more subjective and uncertain. The simple shorthand notation for naming metaphors refers to the mapping of the entailments from the source domain onto the target.

Additional Examples:

q Health and illness ("She’s fit for the job," Suitability For Work is Health)

q Animals ("You weasel!" Person is Animal, Particular Person is Cunning Animal)

q Plants ("He blossomed," Person is Plant, Development of Person is Blooming of Plant)

q Buildings and construction ("The case is baseless," Case is a Building, Particular Case is Building Without Foundation)

q Machines and tools ("The plan ran like clockwork," Plan is Machine, Precise Plan is Precise Machine)

q Game and sport ("Mediation depends on following the ground rules," Mediation is a Game, Following the Mediation Process is Following the Rules of the Game)

q Money and economic transactions ("She’s invested in that point of view," Perspective is Economic Transaction, Having a Position on Something is Staking Money on Something)

q Cooking and food ("On hearing the news he simmered for days," Anger is Being Cooked, Non-Erupting Anger is Slow Cooking)

q Heat and cold ("What’s hot?" Importance/Excitement is Temperature),

q Light and darkness ("That shed light on it," Knowledge is Light, Particular Knowledge is Light Directed on a Particular Spot)

q Forces ("He was induced to agree," Persuasion is Physical Force, Particular Persuasion is Invisible Physical Force)

q Movement and direction ("She’s one up," Social Advantage/Disadvantage is Up/Down; "He’s heading for trouble," Action is Movement, Particular Action is Movement Towards a Particular Destination)

 

Awareness of Multiple Source Domains - Sorting Out Meaning

By becoming aware of these common metaphor source domains the mediator knows in advance about the wide range of alternative metaphors that exist for thinking and talking even about just one small fragment of a situation. Each alternative source domain makes accessible a somewhat different aspect of the situation. The shorthand naming convention shown above helps us fix our conscious awareness of each metaphor and begin to review what is entailed by each different source domain. By haviveltempla+ng familiarity with such a range of source domains the mediator is better equipped to hear metaphors, to comment or to query disputants about what they mean and what they experience.

Here are some examples of comments and questions that mediator knowledge of multiple source domains might stimulate (based on first set of examples, above):

q What pushes a parent to be resourceful?

q He might be more of a player and less a coach.

q You each can throw different ingredients into the same pot.

q Some parents warm up to certain tasks more than others.

q What are the things of greatest value to kids of this age?

Target Domain

The Target Domain is what is being focused on now. What is of concern is within this domain - the situation you face. It is generally less well understood, is subjectively experienced and
involves abstract concepts.